Demystifying How Constitutions Are Made – External Actors’ Modes of Actions in the 2014 Tunisian Constitution

Map of Tunisia.

Written by Alicia Pastor y Camarasa, Research Fellow at the University of Lausanne.


Scholars have acknowledged the significant transnational dimension of constitution-making. This paper sheds light on how the transnational dimension of constitution-making materializes by examining external actors’ involvement in an understudied stage of constitution-making: constitutional drafting. Drawing on an in-depth examination of external actor involvement during the making of the 2014 Tunisian Constitution, this Article proposes a typology detailing how external actors’ expertise was provided, elucidating the different modes of action of external actors involvement during constitution-making.